The Most Common Methods of Birth Control for Men
Most men consider care to prevent pregnancy feminine duty. And yet, to take active part in the defense of their partners from unintended pregnancy, men can and should. Here are some examples of all currently existing methods of male contraception. Let’s consider the most common and used methods of methods of birth control for men and check their efficacy profile.
The most popular ways of birth control for men:
- Coitus interruptus (pull out method, rejected sexual intercourse) is one of the most unreliable methods of birth control for men. It is believed that the effectiveness of the method is less than 70%, almost every third act can be dangerous because a small amount of sperm can be released at the beginning of sexual intercourse. Furthermore, such a “protection” may cause sexual dysfunction in both partners.
- does not require the use of tablets or other means;
- not harmful to a body.
- Artificially prolonged sexual act – also relates to methods unreliable. Of course, it prolongs the time of sexual pleasure partners and usually does not lead to ejaculation, but can not guarantee security, since the sperm released not only during orgasm, but together with a lubricant. Additionally, if this method is used frequently, it may cause impotence and health problems in men (elevated blood pressure and headache).
- Condom is one of the best methods of birth control for men. Modern technology offers high-strength and ultra-thin latex condoms are of different lengths, colors and flavors. However, the condom may burst, and its use requires a certain skill.
Use a condom if you don’t have any barrier methods of birth control for men. Approximately 56% of men prefer it to condoms. This is the most popular and effective means of contraception for men. Today’s products are made from latex – tight sperm substance.
Advantages of the method:
- highest efficiency (85-97%);
- protects against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections;
- ease of use and wide availability on the market.
- Preparations containing “androgens and anti-androgens” (large doses of testosterone) that cause azoospermia (sperm disappears) and temporary infertility. Abuse of these drugs can be fraught for men development of neoplastic processes in the testes.
With proper reception, efficiency of this method of birth control for men is 100%. Current drugs include hormones dose 100 times smaller than the first hormonal drugs.
The drug for birth control for men is extremely easy to use: one tablet provides the necessary dose of levonorgestrel, enough to prevent pregnancy and moderately low in order to prevent unintended pregnancy for women the gentlest way. The pills are safe for the female body, which is confirmed by numerous clinical studies worldwide.
- Subcutaneous implant for men. This method of birth control for men involve ampoules containing “androgens” surgeon implanted under the skin, where the resolve within 2-4 weeks. During orgasm there is thrown a small amount of “neutralized” sperm. The effect lasts for keeps for 3-5 months. Sometimes there are not very pleasant side effects (headaches, cramps genitals, etc). To continue development of improved injectable drugs use 1 shot in the arm, annually or monthly.
The only advantage of the implant is that there is no need to take other preparations or use other methods of birth control for men.
- Cyproterone acetate is the drug birth control for men and only for men. Constant use of this drug leads to a temporary sterilization and reduce the number of sperm. After discontinuation of the pill, the volume of sperm recovered, but it is not clear how long the man will be able to fertilize.
- Contraceptive tablets containing “estrogen and androgen” cause an increase in sexual desire and at the same time reduce the quality of sperm. You can consume within 1 month, and then for 3-4 months to take a break. For too long use of the drug side effects may occur: mental disorders, decreased tone and zest for life.
- Vasosection (spermectomy) is ligation of the spermatic cord, which, if desired, you can unleash. This is the ideal method of birth control for men and for the treatment of impotence, prevention of inflammatory changes after removal of prostate tumors.
- Effectiveness of the method, more than 99%;
- Not difficult lovemaking does not reduce sexual sensation;
- The method is reliable and is permanent. The operation is performed one time;
- The operation is simple, the mass (in the United States operated by half a million men annually);
- There is no effect on libido, erection and orgasm (since testicles continue to produce testosterone). Hormones are also maintained;
- It does not decrease the amount of sperm (as sperm occupy only about 1% of the volume of semen).
- Vasectomy is the most highly effective method of birth control for men. This operation consists in cutting the vas deferens, in which the semen comes from both testicles. About a month after her man becomes absolutely fruitless. Previously, the main drawback of vasectomy was that the man was deprived of the possibility to conceive a child for a lifetime. At present a “reverse vasectomy” when crossed the vas deferens back stapled, and the man again becomes capable of fertilization. The ability to conceive a child is recovered in 90% of cases.
This surgical operation for 30 minutes, during which intersect semen flows. It does not affect the potency and libido of men. 2-3 months after the sterilization requirement for other contraceptive disappears completely. Efficiency of this method of birth control for men is up to 99%.
- high reliability;
- surgery is done only once.
- There is also a still little known method of birth control for men called as male intrauterine device (IUD). It looks like a miniature umbrella, is inserted through the head of the penis in the scrotum. At the end of the spiral is a gel having a spermicidal effect.
- very effective at preventing pregnancy;
- allows fertility to return immediately upon removal;
- do not interfere with sexual intercourse;
- a long-term option;
- relatively inexpensive.
Doctors are on the cusp of launching the first new male contraceptive in more than a century. But rather than a Big Pharma lab, the breakthrough is emerging from a university startup in the heart of rural India.
Years of human trials on the injectable, sperm-zapping product are coming to an end, and researchers are preparing to submit it for regulatory approval. Results so far show it’s safe, effective and easy to use—but gaining little traction with drugmakers. That’s frustrating its inventor, who says his technique could play a crucial role in condom-averse populations.
A new birth control method for men has the potential to win as much as half the $10 billion market for female contraceptives worldwide and cut into the $3.2 billion of annual condom sales, businesses dominated by pharmaceutical giants Bayer AG, Pfizer Inc. and Merck & Co., according to estimates from the last major drug company to explore the area. India’s reversible procedure could cost as little as $10 in poor countries, and may provide males with years-long fertility control, overcoming compliance problems and avoiding ongoing costs associated with condoms and the female birth-control pill, which is usually taken daily.
It could also ease the burden on the 225 million women in developing countries, who the World Health Organization says have an unmet need for contraception. Yet, so far only a U.S. non-profit has taken up development of the technology abroad.
For Sujoy Guha, the 76-year-old biomedical engineer who invented the product, the challenge is to now find a company who wants to sell it—even though male contraception is an area Big Pharma has so far shown little interest in. “The fact that the big companies are run by white, middle-aged males who have the same feeling—that they would never do it—plays a major role,” said Herjan Coelingh Bennink, a gynecology professor who helped develop the contraceptives Implanon and Cerazette as head of research and development in women’s health for Organon International from 1987 to 2000. “If those companies were run by women, it would be totally different.”
Guha’s technique for impairing male fertility relies on a polymer gel that’s injected into the sperm-carrying tubes in the scrotum. The gel, which has the consistency of melted chocolate, carries a positive charge that acts as a buffer on negatively charged sperm, damaging their heads and tails, and rendering them infertile.
The treatment, known as reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance, or RISUG, is reversed with a second shot that breaks down the gel, allowing sperm to reach the penis normally.
The expected launch of RISUG over the next two years will contribute to the Indian contraceptive market’s 17 percent growth through 2021, according to a report last year from Pharmaion Consultants, based near New Delhi.
The procedure is 98 percent effective at preventing pregnancy—about the same as condoms if they are used every time—and has no major side effects, according to R. S. Sharma, head of reproductive biology and maternal health at the Indian Council of Medical Research. About 540 men have received it in India, where it continues to prevent pregnancies in their partners 13 years after treatment, he said.
A submission to regulators this year will seek approval for RISUG as a permanent method of birth control. That will be appended with clinical data supporting reversibility, Sharma said. India has more married women with an unmet need for family planning than any other country, and social stigma and a lack of privacy in stores has kept condom use to less than 6 percent.
Globally, men tend to take a back seat in matters of contraception. Almost 60 percent of women in spousal relationships used the contraceptive pill or some other form of modern contraception worldwide in 2015, according to a United Nations report. In contrast, 8 percent relied on their male partner using a condom.
percent relied on their male partner using a condom.
A new option for male birth control could garner as much as half the female contraceptives market, according to research by Organon in the 1990s, when the Dutch drugmaker partnered with Germany’s Schering AG on the last major effort to develop a male birth control pill. Demand would come from couples in long-term relationships looking to share family-planning responsibilities and single men looking for an alternative to condoms to prevent an unintended pregnancy from casual sex, Coelingh Bennink said.
Still, there were questions at Organon about whether it would be worthwhile financially to develop a new entrant in the low-margin contraceptives market, and the project was eventually shelved, he said.
A researcher prepares syringes at the reversible inhibition of sperm under guidance (RISUG) male contraceptive R&D laboratory.
Efforts on a hormone-based male contraceptive continued in 2008 in a study co-funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and UN agencies that was published in October. While the injected regimen’s efficacy was “relatively good” compared to other methods, the study was terminated early after a safety review. The authors noted a “relatively high” frequency of mild to moderate mood disorders, sparking a media uproar over perceived double standards in the development of contraceptives because the side effects seemed similar to those women experience on the pill.
Bayer, which bought Schering in 2006, stopped all research and development activities around male fertility control about a decade ago, said Astrid Kranz, a company spokeswoman.
Although an earlier clinical trial involving the administration of hormones via injection and an implant was “efficient, with a tolerable side effect profile,” Kranz said, the Leverkusen, Germany-based drugmaker wasn’t convinced this “inconvenient” regimen would find sufficient market acceptance.
Male contraception isn’t an area of active research for Pfizer and Merck either, representatives said. Both companies sell products for female fertility control.
“In doing anything abroad, quite substantial money is required, and that can only come from the pharmaceutical industry,” Guha said, surrounded by dusty stacks of paper, books and prototype inventions that bury every surface in his office at the Indian Institute of Technology in Kharagpur, about 130 kilometers (80 miles) west of Kolkata.
Parsemus is working on its own version, called Vasalgel, that it plans to manufacture and distribute at near cost—or potentially $10 to $20 per person in low- and middle-income countries—and $400 to $600 per person in wealthier markets, Elaine Lissner, the foundation’s founder, said in an email.
The foundation, based in Berkeley, California, is seeking donations to fund costly human trials starting next year after a study in 16 rhesus monkeys published last month showed Vasalgel was successful in preventing conception while the primates fraternized with females for 5 to 24 months. Guha meantime has registered a startup in India called IcubedG Ideas Pvt. Ltd. through which he is pushing ahead with introducing the technology in his home country. He leased space in a New Delhi industrial zone in January after developing a method of mass production using a government grant. Three couples who participated in the clinical trials gathered in his Kharagpur office in February to attest to the need.
Kinkar Ari, a 39-year-old day laborer from a nearby village, said that when he and his wife Aloka decided they didn’t want more children they had a choice between tubal ligation for her or vasectomy for him, but neither could afford the time off to recuperate from the surgery. When a public health worker told the couple about Guha’s promising alternative, Ari decided to enroll in the study. The injection took 15 minutes with some local anesthesia, and after half an hour of observation at the clinic, he said he was able to walk the 2.5 kilometers home. Two days later, he was back at work. Ari was so enthused by the procedure, he convinced two other couples to have it done, he said.
Stories like that encourage Guha to persist with the project, he said, even though patents on his invention have long since expired and he won’t see any personal financial gain even if it takes off worldwide.
“Why should the burden be borne by the female only?” he said in his office after the three couples had left. “There has to be an equal partnership.”
Successes and problems
The shots eliminated the need to use condoms or female birth control before engaging in sex. But there were problems. After 52 weeks, the cumulative reversibility of sperm production was about 95 per 100 continuing users.
That means that four weeks after leaving the test groups, five of every 100 men were still unable to produce sperm at their previous levels. It is not known if their sperm production increased after time. Other adverse effects included acne, injection site pain, increased libido, and mood disorders. As a result, following the recommendation of an external safety review committee, the recruitment and hormone injections were terminated early. One test subject experienced depression. Another had an irregular heartbeat, which concerned the review committee enough to find it unwise to continue.
Still, as far as its primary intent of preventing pregnancy, the shots did pretty well. During the efficacy phase of up to 56 weeks, four pregnancies occurred among the partners of the 266 male participants. That’s a rate of 1.57 per 100 continuing users. That compares with an effective rate of 82 percent for condoms and 78 percent for withdrawal. Only vasectomy has better numbers, 99 percent, but not everyone is ready for that permanent solution.
Despite the problems, the shots earned high marks from participants.
At the conclusion of the trial period, more than 75 percent of participants reported being willing to use this method of contraception.
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