Functions of the Eyelids and Common Disorders

eyelids

An Eyelids is a thin layer of skin that covers and protect the eye.The eye contain a muscle that retracts the eyelid to open the eye either happily or unhappily.

Main Purposes

The Eyelids primary role is to protect the eye and keep foreign objects out. Another crucial function of the eyelid is to maintain the surface of the eye wet by spreading tears over it on a regular basis. Tears are expressed over your eye by a tiny pumping or squeezing action that occurs with each blink. There is also a tiny horizontal movement that propels tears into the puncta, which is a drain conduit for correct disposal and drainage of tears.

Glands

Sebaceous glands, sweat glands, tear glands, and meibomian glands are all found on the underside of the eyelid. Tear glands, which provide us with our daily lubricating tears, are small and scattered around the lid. Reflex tears are secreted by the lacrimal gland, which is positioned just beneath the top eyelid and beneath the body orbit. Tears are produced by the lacrimal gland when we cry emotionally or when we get anything in our eyes. The lacrimal gland tries to wash away the material.

Muscles

Our eyelid function is controlled by various muscles or muscle groups. The muscles that help us blink and keep our upper eyelid in a normal position are as follows:
• Muscle of the Levator
• Muscle
• Muscle of the Frontalis
The orbicularis oculi muscles, a bigger muscle group, encircles the eyes. When we strive to shield our eyes, we use these muscles to tightly close them. Facial expressions are also formed by the orbicularis oculi muscles.

Swelling

Swelling around the eyes is usually not a major problem. It might help if you do the following :
• Apply a cool compress to your eyes or rinse them with cool water.
• If you wear contact lenses, take away them.
• Pain in the eyes
• Vision that is blurry or lost
• When you have the sensation that something is caught in your eye
• Allergies: In rare circumstances, allergies can cause your eyelids to enlarge.

Rolling

Entropion is a condition that is frequently associated with ageing. When the edge of your eyelid and eyelashes roll inward, this is known as drooping. It can affect either your upper or lower lids, but the lower lids are more commonly affected. If your eyelashes irritate the front of your eye (cornea), making your eyes wet, you may experience some discomfort.
Although eye drops can assist, eye discomfort can occasionally persist, leading to infections and scars. In certain circumstances, surgery to correct your eyelids may be required.

Common Illnesses

Dermatochalas is is an additional layer of skin on the upper eyelids that develops in persons over the age of 50. Dermatochalasis is a skin condition that occurs as a result of normal ageing. It is caused by fat prolapsing or sliding forward, as well as the loss of tone in the eyelid tissue as we age. Dermatochalasis might cause your upper vision field to be blocked. A blepharoplasty procedure can be used to remove this tissue and restore full visual function.

Entropion : When you have entropion, the lower lid edge pulls inwards towards the eye’s surface.Irritation, foreign body sensation, infection, scarring, and ulceration of the cornea can occur when the eyelashes rub on the cornea and conjunctiva. Surgery is the most common method of treating entropion. The most general cause of entropion is aged. The tissue and muscles lose tone, and the skin against your eye is no longer taut.

Blepharospasm is a condition in which the eyelid muscles contract abnormally and forcefully. The actual aetiology is unknown, and it appears to be unrelated to any other illnesses. Contractions can become powerful and involve both eyelids, and symptoms normally start slowly but progress over time. Botox or botulinum toxin is usually effective in treating it.

Ectropion is the polar opposite of entropion. The lower eyelid may fold, tilt outward, or just sag. The eye becomes exposed and dries out as a result of this. Mucus discharge, a sandy, gritty texture, discomfort, and scarring are all possible symptoms. It becomes more prevalent as we age, as the skin and muscles of the eyelids lose tone. Ectropion can also be caused by a long-term facial paralysis. Rolling over on your pillow at night can cause the eyelid to flap outward if the tone of your eyelids gets weak.

Blepharospasm is a condition in which the eyelid muscles contract abnormally and forcefully. The actual aetiology is unknown, and it appears to be unrelated to any other illnesses. Contractions can become powerful and involve both eyelids, and symptoms normally start slowly but progress over time. Botox or botulinum toxin is usually effective in treating it.

Bell’s palsy is a weakening or paralysis of the muscles and facial nerve on one side of the face caused by facial nerve injury or dysfunction. 8 This ailment appears out of nowhere and normally improves on its own within four to six weeks, although it can last up to six months. Many people believe they are experiencing a stroke. Bell’s Palsy is classified as idiopathic, which means it has no known aetiology. Bell’s Palsy can be caused by herpes zoster, a virus that causes cold sores.

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