What Is Glaucoma and How Does It Affect You?


Glaucoma is a condition that affects the visual nerve. Your eyes send visual information to your brain via the optic nerve.
Glaucoma is caused by an excessively high pressure inside your eye, however that is not always the case. Over time, increased pressure might harm your optic nerve tissue, resulting in vision loss or even blindness. If you identify it early enough, you might be able to prevent further vision loss.

What Are the Various Types of Glaucoma?

Congenital glaucoma that is present at birth.

Children with congenital glaucoma have an difference in the position of their eyes, which slows or prevent regular fluid loss. Congenital glaucoma is characterised by cloudy eyes, frequent weeping, and light sensitivity.Glaucoma is a congenital condition that can run in families.

Glaucoma (Secondary)

Secondary glaucoma is in general a lesser upshot of damage or another eye condition, such as cataracts or eye tumours. This form of glaucoma can also be caused by medications like corticosteroids. Secondary glaucoma is a unusual region cause of eye surgery.

What Is the Procedure for Diagnosing Glaucoma?

A full eye examination will be performed by your ophthalmologist to diagnose glaucoma. They’ll look for indicators of deterioration, such as nerve tissue loss. They may also utilise one or more of the tests and procedures listed below:

Detailed Medical Background

Your doctor will want to know about your symptoms as well as whether you or a family member has had glaucoma. They’ll also perform a general health exam to see whether you have any other health problems that could be hurting your vision, such as diabetes or high blood pressure.

Tonometry is a test that determines the volume of your voice.

This type of test measures the inside pressure of your eye.

Test for Pachymetry

Glaucoma is more common in people who have thin corneas. A pachymetry test can alert your doctor if your corneas are thinner than normal.

Test of Perimetry

This exam, also known as a visual field test, evaluates your peripheral, or side, vision as well as your central vision to determine if glaucoma is affecting your vision.

Keeping an Eye on Your Optic Nerve

If your doctor wants to monitor progressive changes in your optic nerve, they may take photographs of it and compare them side by side over time.

Glaucoma is a disease that affects people of all ages.

According to the World Health Organization, glaucoma is the world’s second leading cause of blindness (WHO).Glaucoma can be caused by a number of reasons, including:


According to the, glaucoma is more common in those over 60, and the risk of glaucoma increases somewhat with each year of age. At the age of 40, if you’re African-American, your risk begins to climb.


African-Americans and people of African legacy are a lot more likely than Caucasians to gain glaucoma. Angle-closure glaucoma is more common in people of Asian heritage, whereas low-tension glaucoma is more common in people of Japanese descent.

Problems with the eyes

Chronic eye inflammation and fragile corneas can lead to increased eye pressure.Eye pressure can also rise as a result of physical injury or trauma to the eye, such as being smacked in the eye.

History of the Family

Glaucoma can run in families in some cases. You have a higher chance of developing open-angle glaucoma if your parent or grandfather had it.

Medical Background

People with diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart problems are more likely to develop glaucoma.

Use of Certain Drugs

Long-term corticosteroid use may increase your risk of developing secondary glaucoma.

Causes of Glaucoma

The fluid inside your eye, aqueous humour, generally drains out through a mesh-like tube. If this pathway becomes clogged or if the eye generates too much fluid, the liquid piles up. The cause of the blockage isn’t always clear to experts. It can, however, be inherited, which means that it is handed down from parents to kids.

Glaucoma can also be caused by a physical or chemical injury to the eye, a serious eye infection, clogged blood vessels inside the eye, and inflammatory illnesses. It’s uncommon, but eye surgery to treat another problem can sometimes trigger it. In most cases, both eyes are damaged, however one may be more so than the other.

What can I do to assist a parent who has glaucoma?

A diagnosis of glaucoma might be frightening. Many senior citizens are suffering with a variety of age-related issues. They frequently worry that if they lose their vision, they will become a burden to their families. So, first and foremost, reassure your parent that with proper medication and care, many people can maintain their vision.

Next, assist your loved one in developing a regimen to ensure that their eye drops are applied on time. They may have to put them in multiple times throughout the day. This is very tough for persons with arthritis, and remembering it is a difficult challenge for anyone. You could offer to assist by dropping by or calling with a friendly reminder. Otherwise, consult your parent’s physician to ensure that a plan is in place. In order to avoid permanent vision loss from glaucoma, it is critical to stick to a treatment regimen.

If your parent requires surgery, do everything you can to assist them in preparing for it and arranging transportation to follow-up appointments with the doctor.
There are numerous services and products available to help someone with impaired vision write checks, organise their kitchen, read time, and even play cards.To learn more, contact the Glaucoma Foundation.

Treatment for Glaucoma

To relieve the pressure in your eye, your doctor may use prescription eye drops, oral medicines, laser surgery, or microsurgery.

Drops for the eyes.These either reduce or increase the flow of fluid out of your eye, decreasing ocular pressure. Allergies, redness, stinging, blurred vision, and irritated eyes are all possible side effects. Some glaucoma medications can harm your heart and lungs. Because of the risk of drug interactions, inform your doctor about any other medical conditions you may have or medications you are taking. Also, let them know if following a regimen containing two or three different eye drops is difficult for you, or if there are any negative effects. They might be able to make a difference in your therapy.

Medications taken orally.Your doctor may also prescribe an oral medication, such as a beta-blocker or a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, for you to take. These medications can help with drainage or slow the production of fluid in the eye.

Laser surgery is a procedure that involves the use of a

If you have open-angle glaucoma, this procedure can help you drain more fluid from your eye. It can help you avoid fluid blockage if you have angle-closure glaucoma. Some of the procedures are as follows:

Trabeculoplasty.The drainage area is now open.
Iridotomy.This creates a small hole in your iris, allowing fluid to flow freely.
Cyclophotocoagulation.This treatment reduces fluid production in the central layer of your eye.

Preventing Glaucoma

Glaucoma cannot be prevented. However, if you catch it early enough, you can reduce your chance of eye injury. These precautions may aid in the preservation of your vision:

Get your eyes checked on a regular basis.The earlier your doctor detects glaucoma symptoms, the sooner you can begin treatment. Every 3 to 5 years, all adults should get their eyes tested for glaucoma. Get a full eye checkup from an eye doctor every 1 to 2 years if you’re over 40 and have a family history of the condition. If you have diabetes or are at risk for other eye illnesses, you may need to visit more frequently.

Research your ancestors.Inquire whether any of your relatives have been diagnosed with glaucoma.

Pay attention to your doctor’s advice.If they discover that you have excessive eye pressure, they may prescribe glaucoma prevention drops.

Exercise.At least three times a week, engage in moderate activity such as walking or running.

Keep your eyes safe.When playing sports or working on home improvement projects, wear safety glasses.

What Is the Treatment for Glaucoma?

Glaucoma treatment aims to lower IOP in order to prevent further vision loss. Typically, your doctor will start treating you with eye drops prescribed by him or her. If these don’t work or if you need a more advanced treatment, your doctor may recommend one of the following options:


There are a number of medications that can help you lower your IOP. These medications are available as eye drops or pills, with eye drops being the most prevalent. One or a combination of these may be prescribed by your doctor.


If a clogged or slow channel is producing high IOP, your doctor may recommend surgery to create a fluid drainage path or eliminate tissues that are causing the problem.

Angle-closure glaucoma is treated differently. Glaucoma of this sort is a medical emergency that necessitates rapid therapy to lower eye pressure as quickly as possible. Medicines are typically used first to try to reverse the angle closure, but this can be ineffective. Laser peripheral iridotomy, a laser technique, may also be used. This technique makes microscopic holes in your iris to allow more fluid to flow through it.

Is it Possible for a Person with Glaucoma to Go Blind?

Vision loss can be delayed or even stopped if your increasing IOP can be stopped and the pressure returned to normal. Because glaucoma has no cure, you’ll probably require therapy for the remainder of your life to keep your IOP in check. Unfortunately, glaucoma-related vision loss is irreversible.

Is it possible to prevent glaucoma?

Although glaucoma cannot be prevented, it is critical to detect it early so that therapy can begin to prevent it from worsening. An annual preventive eye care appointment is the greatest approach to catch any type of glaucoma early. Make an appointment with an ophthalmologist as soon as possible. Simple tests performed during normal eye exams may be able to detect glaucoma damage before it progresses and causes vision loss.

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